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Theoretical questions will be marked in the section entitled 'Responses and Knowledge of Syllabus'. A candidate may be asked a maximum of three questions in any one examination (if it is felt that he/she was insecure and needed another chance to answer correctly). The answers do not have to be an exact repetition of those written but should convey the same meaning. In some instances, a simple demonstration of the step is an alternative that is acceptable as showing understanding of the theory. Questions will be asked only from the list relevant to the grade entered.


1. When walking in rhythm tests which part of the foot leads the action?

The heel. 

2. In Brushed Toe beats which part of the foot strikes the floor? 

The toe. 

3. In the Tap step ball-change exercise, do we step on to the ball of the foot or the flat foot? 

The ball of the foot. 

4. Where is the footwork placed in Tap Springs? 

The footwork is placed under and slightly behind the body. 

5. Count and clap the rhythm of the first bar of the Shuffle Routine. 



1. Why do we start our work with a warm up exercise? 

To help warm up the legs and feet in preparation for the technical routines. 

2. What is an opposition arm line?

An opposition arm line is when the arms are carried in opposite directions to each other. 

3. Describe a Brushed Toe Beat.

A Brushed Toe Beat is a forward or Backward brush taken from the knee. 

4. Describe an Elevated toe beat.

It is a hop on the ball of the foot using the knee joint mainly. 

5. Describe a Flat beat.

This is a beat made with the whole foot without a change of weight. 

6. Where does the circular action come from in technical shuffles?

The action comes mainly from the ankle.


1. Why do we use various arm lines in tap work? 


Various arm lines are used to help with presentation and style.

2. Describe a coupe.


A coupe is a change of weight from one foot to another. 

3. How many coupes are there in Grade three and what are they? 


There are three that are shown in Grade 3 and these are toe, heel and flat coupes.

4. What joint is used in Upward toe beats? 


The ankle. 

5. What joint is used in Downward Toe beats? 


The ankle

6. What part of the foot strikes the floor to make the beat in Toe supported heel beats? 


The heel makes the beat. 

7. What part of the foot makes the beat of a Pick-up? 


The toe.

Explanation and demonstration of the technique is required:

a) Heel Toe & Flat Coupes.
Change of weight from one foot to the other, on to the heel, toe or flat foot.


b) Upward Toe Beat.

Straight Tap, using the ankle movement


c) (i) Downward Toe Beat.

A firm beat on the ball of the foot using ankle and toe joints only, Knee is flexed.


(ii)Toe Supported Heel Beat.
Heel beat, with the ball of the foot on floor, striking the floor with heel. Weight can be on working foot or divided between the feet.


d) Preparation for Pick-up.

Commence standing on both feet; turn up the toe of one foot then sharply remove the heel and at the same time strike the floor with the toe. Follow this pick up with a step or a hop.


1. What is a Warm-Up and what is it used for? 


A warm-up is a routine arranged to help warm up the muscles in the legs and develop flexibility in the knee and ankle joints in preparation for tap work. 



2. Count and perform the 3/4 time step and break.


&1&2&a3 &4&5&6 to be repeated. Break 1&a2&a3 &4&5&6. Or &1&2&a3 &1&2&3 to be repeated. Break 1&a2&a3 &1&2&3 

3. Why is the use of arm lines an integral part of tap work.



They are used for balance and to help with presentation and style throughout. 

4. What is meant by an elevated Double heel beat?


All double beats are made with both feet simultaneously. A double heel beat is made by hitting the heels together. 

5. Describe a Slipped heel beat.


In a slipped heel beat the ball of the foot slides and the heel makes a firm beat to finish the move. 

6. Describe a pick-up spring.


This is a pick-up that involves only the supporting foot. 

7. Count the rhythm of Toe heel triplets.


1+a 2+a 3+a 4+a.

Explanation and demonstration of the technique is required:

a) Brushed Heel Beat: A Heel Beat carried forward and off the ground, supporting knee flexed


b) Elevated Double Heel Beat travelled to the side A gallop movement, beating sides of heels whilst in the air. 


c) Slipped Heel Beat. A softer movement than a stomp, supporting knee flexed. May be repeated on the same foot, taken alternatively or danced with both feet together.


d) Pick-Up on one foot and Pick-Up Change.
Performed with good elevation but with no definite lift of the supporting toe


e) Toe-Heel Triplets.
Three sounds with a regular accent, travelling backwards. Step, pick-up, heel beat danced to the rhythm 1&a, 2&a, 3&a, 4&a...


1. How many beats are there in a Wing?


There are three. 

2. What part of the Wing is shown in Dove wings?


Only the outward action is used in Dove wings. 

3. Why do we commence Dove wings on the last beat of the previous bar?


This is to complement the natural accents in music on the first and third beats of the barre: 8+1, 2+3

4. Dance and count five Toe heel duplets.



5. What are Raised beats? 


Raised beats are made by striking the heel or toe against the other heel or toe without elevation. 

6. Describe a Pendulum Pick-up.


A Pendulum pick-up is a Brushed toe beat followed by a Pick-up spring on the supporting foot. 

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